There are several types of ventricular septal defects (VSDs), which are defects in the wall separating the two lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles). The types of VSDs include:
Muscular VSD: This type of VSD occurs in the muscular part of the septum and is the most common type.
Perimembranous VSD: This type of VSD occurs near the area where the atrioventricular valves (tricuspid and mitral valves) attach to the septum.
Inlet VSD: This type of VSD occurs in the area of the atrioventricular valves, near the opening of the septum that separates the atria and ventricles.
Outlet VSD: This type of VSD occurs near the opening of the septum that separates the ventricles and the aorta and pulmonary artery.
Supracristal VSD: This type of VSD occurs above the area where the crista dividens, a structure that divides the two ventricles, is located.
Subpulmonary VSD: This type of VSD occurs below the area where the pulmonary artery and aorta exit the ventricles.
The size and location of the VSD can affect the severity of the condition and the appropriate treatment. Some VSDs may close on their own over time, while others may require surgery.