Normative values

This is a selection of the normative values used in the NeoCardioLab for research perspective.

Pediatric Echocardiography by Texas Children's Hospital

A great resources for learning -

TAPSE Z-Score Calculator Reference Values for Right Ventricular Systolic Function


Z-score for pediatric measurements

From: Lai, W. W., Mertens, L. L., Cohen, M. S., & Geva, T. (2015). Echocardiography in pediatric and congenital heart disease: from fetus to adult. John Wiley & Sons.

From: Mertens, L. L. & Friedberg, M. K. Nat. Rev. Cardiol. 7, 551–563 (2010)

From: J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2015;28:808-17

From: Tissot, C., Singh, Y., & Sekarski, N. (2018). echocardiographic evaluation of ventricular Function—For the Neonatologist and Pediatric intensivist. Frontiers in pediatrics, 6, 79.

From: Normative Values of Aortic Arch Structures in Premature Infants

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2017;30:227-32.

From: McCrary A, Malowitz J, Hornick C, Hill K, Cotten C, Tatum G, et al. Differences in Eccentricity Index and Systolic-Diastolic Ratio in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia at Risk of Pulmonary Hypertension. American journal of perinatology. 2015.

From: Cantinotti M, Lopez L: Nomograms for blood flow and tissue Doppler velocities to evaluate diastolic function in children: a critical review. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2013, 26(2):126–141.

The TnECHO Rotunda Manual

Exceptional publication by Dr Afif El-Khuffash. Neonatalogist Performed Echocardiography Teaching Manual.

Available online via the website - Click here.

This publication is the sole property of Dr Afif El-Khuffash and should be used only for medical education purposes. All material contained in this publication should be referenced to the author.

Also, available here:

NPE_Teaching_Manual_El-Khuffash_ 2019.pdf

Normative values for targeted neonatal echocardiography by The Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland - Available from the NHRC website.


Lopez L. et al. Recommendations for Quantification Methods During the Performance of a Pediatric Echocardiogram: A Report From the Pediatric Measurements Writing Group of the American Society of Echocardiography Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Council. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2010;23:465-95.

From: American Society of Echocardiography - Click Here


Other Resources:

Neonatal Hemodynamics Research Centre:

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