Pericardial effusion. Measurement should be taken in diastole. Tamponade is a diastolic problem, with restrictive filling. Here, the effusion seems circumferential. Not surprisingly, in a newborns that is lying on his back, the effusion collects posteriorly along the posterior wall of the LV. The fluid can be seen in parasternal short and long axis view in this particular case.

Presence of a small amount of pericardial fluid that almost completely disappears in diastole. The fluid is collected along the right portion around the RV and LV wall. Parasternal short axis view.

Evaluation of restricted filling - PW of RV and LV inflow.

  • Increased tricuspid valve inflow variability on spectral PW-Doppler (normal <40%)

  • Increased mitral inflow variability on spectral PW-Doppler (normal <25%)

A good practice is to compress time in order to observe variation in inflow Doppler velocities. This may be altered in individuals that are not spontaneously breathing.

Ref: https://pedecho.org/library/chd/pericardial-tamponade

Minimal variation in the mitral valve inflow velocities

Increased variability in the mitral valve inflow velocities

Measurements should be done at the end of diastole. Here, as outlined by the ECG tracing, just before the P-wave.

Pleural effusion

Presence of pleural effusion on the left posterior side

Created by Gabriel Altit - Neonatologist / Créé par Gabriel Altit (néonatalogiste) - © NeoCardioLab - 2020